31 votes
Accepted

Without the Coordinator, how will the network decide which double-spend succeeds?

In every DLT, a transaction have a probability to be valid. (In Bitcoin, a transaction is valid as long as it is written in the longest chain, so the probability for your transaction to be invalid is ...
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  • 5,344
8 votes
Accepted

What is the difference between "double-spending" and "address-reuse"?

Every double-spending is an address reuse but not every address-reuse is a double-spending. Let's say you have an address with a balance of 100i Double Spend You send 100i from the address to ...
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  • 4,459
7 votes

How long should it takes before I can consider an outgoing transaction that is still in pending as failed?

There is no green light. If you sign a transaction a second time, even if it is pending, you reveal your private key and the address is insecure. All remaining funds on that address might get stolen. ...
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  • 1,607
7 votes
Accepted

How do I know if a pending transaction will be successful?

The best way, to get your transaction through is to run your own full node on a seperate Server. This makes transactions faster and gives you more control. However, if you don't run your own full node,...
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  • 1,607
7 votes

How can you have side chains and still protect against double spending?

You can't. Just consider the complete flash channel as two transactions. Opening channel. Closing channel. Neither transaction is allowed to conflict with the network. On opening a channel both ...
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  • 1,293
7 votes
Accepted

Is double spending possible in IOTA?

In short: double spending is incredibly unlikely in IOTA. In IOTA, majority hashpower is insufficient for a double-spend attack. IOTA is unlike proof-of-work based blockchains in this regard. You ...
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  • 294
7 votes

Can I be forced to reuse an address by confirming a transaction that is part of a double-spend attempt?

According to this answer to another question, I can just reattach my transaction again without signing it, so the answer is no. I cannot be forced to reuse my address for spending this way.
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  • 1,087
5 votes
Accepted

What does it mean that "the tangle is network-bound instead of hash-power-bound like blockchain"?

The IOTA Tangle more network-bound than hash-power-bound because in order to perform an attack, you need to meet three conditions: X [any number] percentage of network hash rate (depending on Y 34% ...
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  • 4,459
5 votes
Accepted

How can you have side chains and still protect against double spending?

1. If you consider flash channels : double-spend is not possible because when creating a flash channel all participants MUST transfer the exact same amount of iota to a multi-sig wallet (signed by all ...
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  • 5,344
5 votes

how is consensus achieved in simple terms?

let me try to reply here im desperate to understand,i seriously tried Good thing to be curious. This Illustrated Introduction is a good starting point to learn about today's IOTA: https://blog.iota....
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4 votes

How can the transactions in the Tangle be ordered temporally?

Due to the dag structure of the Tangle a complete ordering of transactions is impossible. Therefore, the protocol don't relies on transaction time ordering to determine which of two conflicting ...
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  • 5,344
4 votes
Accepted

CASE STUDY - What can I do if I have a pending transaction that can't be confirmed because the balance now is less than the transaction?

Reattachments won't help and the transfer can't be deleted. Sending 1i to A will help because after that the pending transfer won't be a doublespending.
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4 votes

How long should it takes before I can consider an outgoing transaction that is still in pending as failed?

A transaction will likely remain pending if it doesn't confirm within ~ 1 hour. That is just a rough estimation and may change in the future. Anyone can reattach it, so it will have another chance to ...
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  • 363
3 votes

How do I know if a pending transaction will be successful?

A transaction has not failed even if it does not confirm. You should never make a new transaction, but replay the first one until it confirms. The only time a transaction will not confirm, is if the ...
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2 votes

Finding a double-spending inner conflict referencing two tips

It traverses through ancestors until it reaches a recent memory-persisted snapshot of balances, creates a new potential state, and then checks to see whether any addresses resolve to a negative value.
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  • 316
2 votes

When can a transaction be considered irreversable? (without COO)

When can a transaction be considered irreversable ? (without COO) Strictly speaking: never. In any really decentralized DLT any transaction have a probability to be valid... and this probability is ...
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  • 5,344
2 votes
Accepted

What does a node do if the two selected tips it has to validate are inconsistent?

If I'm not remembering wrong, when a discrepancy is detected the node runs again the MCMC algorithm and chooses two other tips. The inconsistent tips will remain on the tangle. The growth of the ...
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2 votes
Accepted

"The Tangle" white paper: How the probability of double-spending event end with this approximation (t_0 μ)/w_1?

It's Taylor series of the exp function to the 1st order: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taylor_series#Exponential_function exp(-x) = 1 + (-x)^1/1! + (-x)^2/2! + .... Since white paper assumes x to ...
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2 votes

What is a conflicting transaction?

Transactions are conflicting if they try to spend the same money from the same address (and the address does not include enough money to satisfy both at the same time - but this should not happen ...
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  • 7,254
2 votes

Sybil attack with IOTA?

Iota requires PoW on individual transactions. An attacker could double spend but they would need more hashing power than the rest of the honest users. The hashing power of the current tangle is ...
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  • 470
2 votes

What happens with transactions e and f in this example?

In this example, transactions X, K, L, Q, R, a, b, e, f, j must be re-attached to other transactions to get a new opportunity to be confirmed (promoting will not help because promotion don't change ...
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  • 5,344
2 votes

Without the Coordinator, how will the network decide which double-spend succeeds?

Generally speaking, the double-spend which is directly and indirectly referenced by more transactions (i.e. has a larger cumulative weight) will most probably get confirmed. This is because more nodes ...
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  • 1,663
2 votes

How can the transactions in the Tangle be ordered temporally?

All that we know is that Tf and Tg come after Ta,Tb, Tc ...and the transactions (directly or indirectly) referenced by Ta, Tb, Tc. That is all the Tangle "knows" about the temporal order of these ...
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1 vote

How does Trinity know if an address is being reused on a fresh install AND a new Snapshot?

In the current moment, users are protected against this scenario by the same methods that protect them from sending to a wallet where the first 100 addresses are already spent before the last snapshot ...
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  • 7,254
1 vote

impact of a single double-spend to the network

Double spends are resolved once your transaction or bunch of transactions is attached to the main tangle. 1) COO in mainnet: The COO emits milestones every minute. Once your transaction is indirectly ...
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1 vote

What is the absolute minimum cumulative weight that a transaction must have to be considered confirmed by a vendor?

There are no recommendations out yet, because we still need the coo to prevent double spends. In the whitepaper it stats that the confirmation status of a transaction is given by the percentage of ...
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1 vote

Large Weight Attack - does the Coordinator protect against this?

Yes, the coordinator does protect us against these kind of attacks. Let's call the honest transaction A and the double spend B. If neither A or B are confirmed, the coordinator can only confirm one ...
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1 vote

Sending IOTA Question

Ok so first of all generating a new address, doesn't move any of your funds to the new address. So each address only contains the amount of iota which had been deposited before. This is the reason why ...
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  • 1,607
1 vote

Sending IOTA Question

Yes, it is ok to have more pending transaction as long as the used funds for those transactions do not overlap. Usually, the client would prevent you from broadcasting such transactions.
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  • 111

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