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Questions tagged [double-spending]

Use this tag for questions related to Double Spending: A double spend is an attack where the given set of coins is spent in more than one transaction.

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Sybil attack with IOTA?

The solutions to attacks proposed by IOTA white paper seems unclear, in particular, in case of double-spending, it remains unclear what stops a computationally powerful adversary from conducting a ...
4
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1answer
61 views

impact of a single double-spend to the network

I just start looking at iota, the general tangle without Coordinator. I am reading the this presentation about the consensus mechanism, where I'm confused about the impact of a single double-spend to ...
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1answer
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What is the absolute minimum cumulative weight that a transaction must have to be considered confirmed by a vendor?

I assume that referencing a Milestone is not sufficient for a vendor (exchange). That is, they must be making sure that both a Milestone is referenced AND that some time or cumulative weight threshold ...
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1answer
39 views

Large Weight Attack - does the Coordinator protect against this?

In a large weight attack, a double spend is created and tangle of transactions is build upon it ensuring that when the double spend is finally broadcast, the cumulative weight of it's tips outweighs ...
2
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1answer
97 views

When can a transaction be considered irreversable? (without COO)

In an interesting exchange between Come-From-Beyond (CFB) and a Nxt developer, the question is asked: DEV. So when can a transaction be considered irreversable? CFB. Never, look at formula #14 in ...
2
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0answers
90 views

How to compute the % of network computing power the attacker hold?

It is known generally that Tangle is susceptible to 34% attack(of total computing power) that gives a 100% successful attack. The example given on page 19 of white paper says that an upper limit to ...
4
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1answer
39 views

What does a node do if the two selected tips it has to validate are inconsistent?

Every article or blog post that I found only goes to the point where a node has selected two tips via the MCMC walk and checked them for consistency (and then states that if they are inconsistent the ...
2
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0answers
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how to relate computing power of attacker to transaction rate of attacker?

Assume that the merchant accepts the legitimate transaction when its cumulative weight becomes at least w_0, which happens t_0 time units after the original legitimate transaction. let μ stand for the ...
4
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1answer
115 views

“The Tangle” white paper: How the probability of double-spending event end with this approximation (t_0 μ)/w_1?

If the attacker managed to obtain a nonce that gives the double‐ spending transaction a weight of at least 3n0 during the time interval of length t0, then the attack succeeds. The probability of this ...
2
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1answer
102 views

Why choose to use weights in the tangle?

Is it not enough to validate a transaction simply by confirming that the sender actually has X amount to send? What benefit is there to using weights? And even if that transaction is already ...
4
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1answer
118 views

What is a conflicting transaction?

The term is used many times on the whitepaper but I can't find a definition. What would be examples of a conflicting transaction? Extract form Whitepaper: The main idea of the tangle is the ...
5
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3answers
841 views

Is double spending possible in IOTA?

It is mentioned in Tangle's white paper (technology behind IOTA) that From the above discussion it is important to recognize that the inequality λ > μ should be true for the system to be secure. In ...
2
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1answer
143 views

Finding a double-spending inner conflict referencing two tips

I think that IOTA Transactions, Confirmation and Consensus is a very good reading. It helped me a lot on understanding IOTA protocol working. Nevertheless I have a doubt: regarding the Double Spend ...
3
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2answers
54 views

Sending IOTA Question

If I send IOTA to an address and it is in a pending state, can I generate a new address and send a second transaction or do I have to wait until the first one confirms? So is it ok to have 2 pending ...
4
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1answer
53 views

What happens with transactions e and f in this example?

I was looking at the best answer of the following thread (Without the Coordinator, how will the network decide which double-spend succeeds?) and asking myself what will happen to the transactions e, f ...
17
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2answers
546 views

Without the Coordinator, how will the network decide which double-spend succeeds?

Since each double spend, from its perspective, is a valid transaction, they are equally likely to be selected as tips. How will multiple parties agree for certain which one has confirmed, in a timely ...
13
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0answers
365 views

How to determine how quickly the network detects double-spends?

In the question "How does the system sustain regular low-effort "splitting attacks"?" a scenario about the ability to disrupt the network by spamming double-spends and having the network ...
5
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1answer
324 views

What does it mean that “the tangle is network-bound instead of hash-power-bound like blockchain”?

Can someone explain me in a very simple way what should an attacker do to double spend in IOTA? In the whitepaper I read that a double spend transaction should outweigh the legitimate subtangle. ...
6
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1answer
65 views

Can I be forced to reuse an address by confirming a transaction that is part of a double-spend attempt?

Imagine somebody injects two transactions d1 and d2 into the network that together represent a double-spend attempt. Having only incomplete information of all latest transactions in the network, I see ...
7
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2answers
190 views

What is the difference between “double-spending” and “address-reuse”?

As far as I understood: double-spending: is when you do a second outgoing transaction while another one is still in pending. (this is possible only with Android wallet, because the light wallet [...
4
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3answers
121 views

How can you have side chains and still protect against double spending?

I know one of the goals of Iota is to allow off-tangle transaction, wether that is with side chains or flash channels or some other offline solution. These seperate transaction deliberately do not ...
2
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2answers
130 views

CASE STUDY - What can I do if I have a pending transaction that can't be confirmed because the balance now is less than the transaction?

This is a case study that I'm experiencing in real life. I'm trying to replicate the issue. Wallet A - Balance 3i Wallet B - Balance 0i Wallet C - Balance 0i I'm sending 3i from wallet A to wallet B....
14
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3answers
324 views

Is it possible to cancel a transaction?

I made a transaction from Android wallet to Exchange A of 10Gi. The transaction is in pending. I tried a few times to reattach, but the transaction is still in pending. I made a second transaction ...
3
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2answers
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How long should it takes before I can consider an outgoing transaction that is still in pending as failed?

This is a different question born from the discussion in "How do I know if a pending transaction will be successful?" I'd like to know WHEN I have the green light to try to do a second transaction in ...
17
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2answers
306 views

How do I know if a pending transaction will be successful?

When I send or receive IOTA, I first see the transaction in my wallet as in pending. As the time pass, the transaction is still in pending. I have to wait half an hour minimum to do the reattach. And ...