27 votes

What does the IOTA coordinator actually do?

I think this copy/paste from Reddit explains it perfectly: What is the Coordinator and what does it do? Every minute [now 35 seconds] the Coordinator makes a normal transaction with its signature ...
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  • 1,099
26 votes

What are the prerequisites for shutting down the IOTA coordinator?

The coordinator or "COO" will be shut down as soon as the network reaches a certain number of transactions per second (not known at the moment). This is necessary because "The Tangle" is vulnerable to ...
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  • 445
9 votes
Accepted

What's the difference between Milestones and Snapshots?

A milestone and a snapshot are two separate things. Currently, the network has the coordinator set up to ensure that malicious attacks cannot occur. The specifics of what a milestone is are detailed ...
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  • 3,135
7 votes
Accepted

How can IOTA's proof of work provide sufficient network security?

What PoW means in practice is that cost spent on mining = security. Ie. $100 fees per hour? Spend >$100 (in energy used for mining) to rewind these transactions. It's better with asics as that adds '...
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  • 1,607
6 votes

How can IOTA's proof of work provide sufficient network security?

"Hype aside it's a minor change that's equivalent to transaction chains in Lightning Network or Raiden, offering exactly the same advantages (asynchronous) and disadvantages (lower security)." - this ...
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5 votes
Accepted

How does the coordinator sign milestones without compromising the private key?

The answer, it seems, is merkle trees. There is a huge set of pre-generated keys using a merkle tree, and the milestone index is used to traverse the tree. Original answer found here: https://www....
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5 votes
Accepted

What is the "latestSolidSubtangleMilestone"?

The Latest Milestone is the latest milestone you have received from the coordinator. The Latest Solid Milestone, as the documentation says, is the latest milestone where your node has all ...
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4 votes

As per "The Stability and the Security of the Tangle", how will IOTA ensure that all honest nodes are continuously using their hashing power?

The paper referenced in the question try to demonstrate that the tangle cannot resist to a 51% attack. Nothing really new here. The position of the Iota Foundation is to favorise a stable organic ...
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  • 5,344
3 votes

As per "The Stability and the Security of the Tangle", how will IOTA ensure that all honest nodes are continuously using their hashing power?

My paper states that any tip selection that uses the weight of sites to select tips are subject to double-spending attack if the amount of hashing power used by nodes to generates honest sites is ...
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  • 31
3 votes
Accepted

Coordinator Address is Hard-Coded - Secure?

The coordinator uses Merkle tree based signature scheme which allows to sign multiple messages with the same public/private key pair. This Merkle tree contains 2^20 keys. That means that the ...
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  • 498
3 votes

How can IOTA's proof of work provide sufficient network security?

I don't understand enough of how IOTA works yet, so I can only suggest you try to understand this blog post about IOTA's security against attacks with great hash-power. It basically says that having ...
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  • 1,087
2 votes

Identify transactions issued by the coordinator

All transactions from the coordinator (on mainnet) will send 0 IOTA to/from address KPWCHICGJZXKE9GSUDXZYUAPLHAKAHYHDXNPHENTERYMMBQOPSQIDENXKLKCEYCPVTZQLEEJVYJZV9BWU, and their tag will be the ...
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  • 7,254
2 votes
Accepted

Identify transactions issued by the coordinator

If you query a node with the getNodeInfo command, it will return a JSON object similar to the following: { "appName": "IRI", "appVersion": "1.4.1.2", "duration": 0, "...
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  • 1,358
2 votes

Is the fastest confirmation time limited by the frequency of the Coordinator issued Milestones?

There is a link between milestone frequency and average confirmation time. But the time interval between milestone is not a lower bound for confirmation time. If you submit a tx, and if you are ...
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  • 5,344
2 votes

Economic Clustering and need for (Dezentralized) Coordinators?

Since I am not CfB, I cannot guarantee that my answer aligns 100% with his vision but this is my understanding of it: 1. Functionality of distributed coordinator in Cluster 0 Yes, exactly. The ...
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  • 4,459
2 votes

We are several years into IOTA - why can't the Coordinator source code be made public?

I suppose you ask about a full coordinator source, including the Merkle hash tree (or whatever is used) data which is used to sign the milestones. Not releasing this kind of information is currently ...
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  • 137
2 votes
Accepted

What happens to the Iota network if the coordinator vanishes?

No more confirmation by the coo, the tangle will keep growing, but none of the new transactions will be confirmed. With the current IRI (1.5.1), the starting point of the random walk is a "not too ...
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  • 5,344
2 votes

The "road-map" for when the IOTA Tangle reaches sufficient size?

IOTA is NOT on a testnet. It is on the mainnet. And the Coordinator does exist on the mainnet. There is no official roadmap for the removal of the Coordinator AFAIK.
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2 votes
Accepted

Does IOTA have block finality (at the moment)?

Yes all transactions referenced by a milestone (emitted by the coordinator every minute or less) is considered "confirmed" and final That is what the label in tangle explorer means. In the future ...
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2 votes
Accepted

How does the IOTA Foundation determine if a spend is a typo or a real spend?

You are asking about undocumented and closed source behaviour. I can only explain how the open source part of IOTA works and make assumptions and draw conclusions about their consequences to the ...
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  • 4,459
2 votes

Coordicide in 2021?

It depends on development time and network maturation. The more nodes and transactions there are, the more likely the network is mature and ready in time for release.
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  • 408
1 vote

BadApiResponse: 403 response from node: {'error': 'command [attachToTangle] is protected'}

The attachToTangle command is used to perform PoW for your transaction. For it to work for transactions received via the Internet (even from localhost), you need to enable remote PoW in your Hornet ...
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  • 7,254
1 vote

Coordicide: Would using public key encryption as a mechanism for node identity impact Iota's quantum resistance?

According to the document: In contrast to any data stored in the Tangle, the communication layer, therefore, does not necessarily require the use of post-quantum cryptography right now, ...
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  • 7,254
1 vote

Relativity of simultaneity in observing the best confirmed double-spend in a COO-less Tangle

The time to propagate a transaction through gossip is orders of magnitude smaller that the time required to accumulate a significant cumulative weight (so that it start to be relevant to look at the ...
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  • 5,344
1 vote

Without Coordinator issued Milestones, how will a post-COO node know if it is in sync?

So far, the solution isn't found/decided yet. In other words there is no implementation yet. That being said, every transaction have a "height" property defined as the length of the shortest path to ...
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  • 5,344
1 vote

Is the IOTA Coordinator and Milestones similar to Bitcoin checkpoints?

Initial motivation for checkpoints in bitcoin is to prevent 51% attacks as explained by satoshi (July 17, 2010): The security safeguard makes it so even if someone does have more than 50% of the ...
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  • 5,344
1 vote

Is the fastest confirmation time limited by the frequency of the Coordinator issued Milestones?

I think while we have coordinator fastest confirmation time is limited by frequency how milestones are issued. By definition. Because to be confirmed = to be referenced by milestone. Average ...
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1 vote

Decentralized milestone issuance scheme?

Nobody will say internet is centralized, but there is something call IANA(Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) for internet. The same thing can be done to tangle. And IF can be IANA of tangle, and ...
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1 vote

Decentralized milestone issuance scheme?

IMO, your proposal don't address the key question : Wait until it is considered confirmed by the network. This leads to the tricky questions : Waiting for how long ? Most important : how the IRI ...
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  • 5,344

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