26

I think this copy/paste from Reddit explains it perfectly: What is the Coordinator and what does it do? Every minute [now 35 seconds] the Coordinator makes a normal transaction with its signature on it, and we call these Milestones. Every transaction (including Milestones) verifies two other transactions. When you want to know if a transaction is verified,...


25

The coordinator or "COO" will be shut down as soon as the network reaches a certain number of transactions per second (not known at the moment). This is necessary because "The Tangle" is vulnerable to attacks in its infancy. The network is secured if there are many people confirming transactions all the time. No exact date can be given as when the COO will ...


9

A milestone and a snapshot are two separate things. Currently, the network has the coordinator set up to ensure that malicious attacks cannot occur. The specifics of what a milestone is are detailed in this answer: What does the IOTA coordinator actually do? A snapshot is a separate technical feature of IOTA that essentially captures a snasphot of all ...


7

What PoW means in practice is that cost spent on mining = security. Ie. $100 fees per hour? Spend >$100 (in energy used for mining) to rewind these transactions. It's better with asics as that adds 'has access to asics'. To buy Security with huge costs of transactions is not reasonable anymore. Fiat Cash or anything else is cheaper. This would be dump ...


6

"Hype aside it's a minor change that's equivalent to transaction chains in Lightning Network or Raiden, offering exactly the same advantages (asynchronous) and disadvantages (lower security)." - this is a https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straw_man argument. All the rest is based on this fallacious foundation, no surprise the resume is fallacious too.


5

The answer, it seems, is merkle trees. There is a huge set of pre-generated keys using a merkle tree, and the milestone index is used to traverse the tree. Original answer found here: https://www.reddit.com/r/Iota/comments/7gsd3t/why_are_coordinator_signatures_still_secure/dqo9b9r/ With updated source link here: https://github.com/iotaledger/iri/blob/dev/...


5

The Latest Milestone is the latest milestone you have received from the coordinator. The Latest Solid Milestone, as the documentation says, is the latest milestone where your node has all transactions that are directly or indirectly referenced by it (called subtangle here). If some transactions are missing, the milestone is not solid and your node is not ...


4

The paper referenced in the question try to demonstrate that the tangle cannot resist to a 51% attack. Nothing really new here. The position of the Iota Foundation is to favorise a stable organic growth of honest transactions (as founders said multiple times on discord, reddit, ...) Some members of the community suggested to include a spammer on IRI nodes ...


3

My paper states that any tip selection that uses the weight of sites to select tips are subject to double-spending attack if the amount of hashing power used by nodes to generates honest sites is smaller than the hashing power of an adversary. This is not very surprising as ben75 said this is just the non-resistance to 51% attack. About the implication "all ...


3

The coordinator uses Merkle tree based signature scheme which allows to sign multiple messages with the same public/private key pair. This Merkle tree contains 2^20 keys. That means that the coordinator is able to sign up to 1 048 576 milestones without key reuse. To better understand how this signature sheme works look at here: https://www.imperialviolet....


3

I don't understand enough of how IOTA works yet, so I can only suggest you try to understand this blog post about IOTA's security against attacks with great hash-power. It basically says that having the hash-power is not enough for an attacker but he also needs to be directly connected to a very large fraction of the network. I can't tell you if this a ...


2

All transactions from the coordinator (on mainnet) will send 0 IOTA to/from address KPWCHICGJZXKE9GSUDXZYUAPLHAKAHYHDXNPHENTERYMMBQOPSQIDENXKLKCEYCPVTZQLEEJVYJZV9BWU, and their tag will be the milestone number. Note, however, that anyone can send such transactions, so there might be more transactions like this that are not coming from the coordinator. To be ...


2

If you query a node with the getNodeInfo command, it will return a JSON object similar to the following: { "appName": "IRI", "appVersion": "1.4.1.2", "duration": 0, "jreAvailableProcessors": 8, "jreFreeMemory": 1824745296, "jreMaxMemory": 3987734528, "jreTotalMemory": 3987734528, "jreVersion": "1.8.0_112", "...


2

I suppose you ask about a full coordinator source, including the Merkle hash tree (or whatever is used) data which is used to sign the milestones. Not releasing this kind of information is currently crucial to IOTA because everybody else could issue milestones, then. If you just ask for the source without any private data (like private information to issue ...


2

No more confirmation by the coo, the tangle will keep growing, but none of the new transactions will be confirmed. With the current IRI (1.5.1), the starting point of the random walk is a "not too old" milestone. If there is no more new milestones the random walk will probably became more and more expensive to run. So the selection of transactions to ...


2

IOTA is NOT on a testnet. It is on the mainnet. And the Coordinator does exist on the mainnet. There is no official roadmap for the removal of the Coordinator AFAIK.


2

Yes all transactions referenced by a milestone (emitted by the coordinator every minute or less) is considered "confirmed" and final That is what the label in tangle explorer means. In the future you will get a certain interval of acceptance (like in Blockchains - accepted after 6 confirmations for example in Bitcoin ). This level should be very very close ...


2

You are asking about undocumented and closed source behaviour. I can only explain how the open source part of IOTA works and make assumptions and draw conclusions about their consequences to the closed source part. How does one know that it‘s not a legitimate spend? You can publish your Iota address to the Tangle by making a 0-value-transaction with it. ...


2

There is a link between milestone frequency and average confirmation time. But the time interval between milestone is not a lower bound for confirmation time. If you submit a tx, and if you are lucky this tx can be immediately selected as tip to approve by a new milestone and you will have a very short confirmation time. Establishing the exact ...


1

The time to propagate a transaction through gossip is orders of magnitude smaller that the time required to accumulate a significant cumulative weight (so that it start to be relevant to look at the confirmation confidence). Therefore the information-delta (i.e. the difference between the Tangle from node A and Tangle from B) is negligible when computing ...


1

So far, the solution isn't found/decided yet. In other words there is no implementation yet. That being said, every transaction have a "height" property defined as the length of the shortest path to genesis. A measurement of the sync state of a node can be based on the (average) height of it's (solid) tips. The exact formula still to be found, but ...


1

Initial motivation for checkpoints in bitcoin is to prevent 51% attacks as explained by satoshi (July 17, 2010): The security safeguard makes it so even if someone does have more than 50% of the network's CPU power, they can't try to go back and redo the block chain before yesterday. (if you have this update) I'll probably put a checkpoint in ...


1

Since I am not CfB, I cannot guarantee that my answer aligns 100% with his vision but this is my understanding of it: 1. Functionality of distributed coordinator in Cluster 0 Yes, exactly. The entities don't have to be companies, but it's very likely, that they will be. 2. Need of coordinator(s) in other clusters I don't know if Cluster 0 will need a ...


1

It is business reason , if they publish coo somebody can copy whole work easily , so once there will be bigger adoption they will make it public and it will be harder for duplicate project to take same adoption. If you are investor in IOTA you aim to not see COO code until big adoption is in place, otherwise it can devalue your investment by many ...


1

Milestones are bundles that reference a certain part of the Tangle. All transactions within this part are considered confirmed by those who trust the COO. In my eyes, milestones behave very much like a transactions with infinite weight. Other nodes can only issue transactions with a weight of 1 (Maybe more in the future). The problem with that is, that ...


1

I think while we have coordinator fastest confirmation time is limited by frequency how milestones are issued. By definition. Because to be confirmed = to be referenced by milestone. Average confirmation time must be strongly correlated with the milestone frequency too


1

Nobody will say internet is centralized, but there is something call IANA(Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) for internet. The same thing can be done to tangle. And IF can be IANA of tangle, and tangle will be still decentralized. i.e. instead of COO generating milestone, IF can have a list millstones that fullnotes can use. Now the issue is how to add ...


1

IMO, your proposal don't address the key question : Wait until it is considered confirmed by the network. This leads to the tricky questions : Waiting for how long ? Most important : how the IRI knows that it is considered confirmed by the network ? The IRI have no knowledge of the network, it only knows it's neighbors. ( Using Qubic may help, but ...


1

From my understanding, today milestones impact the IRI at (at least) 3 (more or less critical) points : Milestones indicate fully confirmed transactions. Without milestone the validity of a transaction must be evaluated by the proportion of tips approving it. (but this point is just impacting clients interested by the confirmation state of a transaction, ...


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