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11 votes
Accepted

What are the expected advantages of Curl-P over Kerl algorithm?

Kerl uses SHA-3 Keccak at its core, which is a binary hashing algorithm. This means that the trinary 'trits' which IOTA normally operates on are converted to bits before being absorbed by Keccak, ...
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  • 1,358
9 votes
Accepted

Why is the normalized hash considered insecure when containing the char 'M'

There was a bug in the wallet software related to absence of https://github.com/Come-from-Beyond/ISS/commit/de1a279450558848a81858fd57b023719eb9a0d3. "M" should be avoided to prevent leakage of the ...
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7 votes

Why is the bundle hash normalized?

When you apply naïve Winternitz signature scheme on a (non-normalized) hash, the amount of private key data you leak is not uniform - a hash of e. g. 999⋯9 would result in all (or none, depending on ...
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  • 7,254
6 votes
Accepted

How is the PoW in IOTA "better" than in Bitcoin?

The POW in IOTA protocol isn't better or worse than the POW in Bitcoin. It is different in it's purpose. If you re-read the docs carefully you will see that the docs don't claims that the POW in IOTA ...
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  • 5,344
5 votes
Accepted

Why is the requested hash size 46 bytes when the transaction hash size is 243 bytes?

In one byte: you can encode up to 2 8 values (i.e. 256 values). When a transaction hash is encoded in a byte[243] , only 3 values within the 256 possibilities are effectively used in each byte. This ...
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  • 5,344
4 votes

Why is the bundle hash normalized?

Winternitz signature scheme requires to have the checksum for the signature to be secure. Bundle normalization is an alternative way of keeping the signature secure while reducing its "strength" a ...
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3 votes
Accepted

Why is "getTransactionsToApprove" returning identical trunk & branch hashes

Strictly speaking : branch and trunk transaction can be the same. Let's think about transaction validating the genesis: there was only only one transaction on the tangle... so impossible to pick 2 ...
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  • 5,344
2 votes

Why were hash collisions unimportant?

Curl-P is not use for signing transaction, therefore collisions in Curl-P is not relevant. For question 1: Eve can try to do it, but the probability to achieve this in reasonable time is extremely ...
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  • 5,344
2 votes

What are address metadata hashes?

I assume that the empty array is a typo here, as the following code will always assume that hashes contains at least one element (either an empty string or a previous transaction hash). On the other ...
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  • 7,254
2 votes
Accepted

Is it possible to create transactions that require less POW

It should be impossible. To successfully accomplish the POW, you must find a nonce (i.e. a random number) to append to the transaction data so that the hash of the whole data (transaction data + ...
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  • 5,344
1 vote

How is IOTA´s transaction hash determined?

Yes and Yes :-) It is simply the CURLP-81 of all the trytes in the transaction.
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  • 131
1 vote
Accepted

Why does Iota try to roll its own crypto?

First of all, the IoT is the absolute dream come true for eavesdropping and a complete loss of a person's privacy and anonymity. Fine dining anyone? An open ecosystem which IOTA offers makes it a ...
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  • 1,099
1 vote
Accepted

What would happen, if two different transactions with the same hash get published simultaneously?

I don't know what's the probability for this to occurs, but I guess that this something that some users try to produce since the early stages of the tangle, and AFAIK was never detected. Anyway, let'...
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  • 5,344
1 vote

How much of my security is improved using other levels of security when generating the seed?

81 trits => 3^81 ~ 4.43×10^38 combinations 162 trits => 3^162 ~ 1.96×10^77 combinations 243 trits => 3^243 ~ 8.72×10^115 combinations Normally security level 1 would be enough (average of about 2.2×...
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  • 201

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