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47
votes
2answers
4k views

Why does IOTA use a ternary number system?

What are the benefits of the ternary number system over the more traditional binary number system? Are there drawbacks to ternary with respect to binary, aside from the obvious of less adoption?
37
votes
3answers
1k views

What are the prerequisites for shutting down the IOTA coordinator?

What conditions need to be met for the central coordinator to be shut down? Is there a number of transactions per second, a number of full IRI nodes or an update to the algorithm necessary?
31
votes
1answer
617 views

How does the system sustain regular low-effort “splitting attacks”?

The whitepaper focuses mainly on attacks in which an attacker tries to double-spend. So the section about the splitting attack examines the case that an attacker tries to effectively create two forks ...
27
votes
9answers
1k views

How to generate a seed safely?

I am sceptical about online generators. How could I generate a IOTA seed safely offline? Does it need to be on a specific format?
27
votes
5answers
1k views

What is the total supply of IOTA?

In Bitcoin the total supply is capped at 21 million BTC. In Ethereum things are slightly looser. (I don't know what their total supply will be.) What's the case for IOTA? Is there a cap, and if so, ...
27
votes
1answer
1k views

What does the IOTA coordinator actually do?

We know that there is a coordinator, which helps to secure the network in order to prevent attacks in early stages of adoption. What does it do exactly, how does it work?
24
votes
1answer
1k views

Is it possible to send pictures to the Tangle? What is the data limit per transaction?

As we all know, it is easily possible to convert ASCII to trytes. See this converter in the IOTA github: Converter If I now want to convert a whole picture like one of the Iota logo to trytes, how is ...
24
votes
2answers
271 views

How do subtangles work?

I've read that IOTA would only be truly infinitely scaleable with subtangles because a full node can only process ~1000 transactions per second. What are subtangles? When will they emerge? What ...
24
votes
1answer
413 views

Estimation of network traffic for a Full Node

Background Full nodes allow to get an complete view on the state of the Tangle (after a snapshot) in order to verify transactions, and to append new transactions to the Tangle. Therefore, full nodes ...
23
votes
1answer
380 views

What happens to a MAM (Masked Authenticated Message) Stream during a Snapshot?

The Masked Authenticated Messaging Introduction doesn't talk about snapshotting as it relates to MAM data streams, so I am trying to work out in my head what happens during a snapshot. It's a forward ...
21
votes
3answers
2k views

What is an IOTA “bundle”?

The IOTASear.ch tangle explorer allows searching for addresses, transactions and bundles. While the meaning of addresses and transactions seem clear to me, I am not aware of the purpose of bundles. ...
21
votes
1answer
473 views

What can an attacker with 34% of total hash power do?

At the moment the coordinator protects the network from 34% attacks. What exactly can and can't such an attacker do when the coordinator is shut down?
20
votes
3answers
314 views

Consensus - what convergence properties does the tangle have when multiple conflicting transactions are built upon by different parts of the network

In traditional blockchains consensus is maintained by proof of work such that the valid chain containing the most cumulative work is agreed to be the consensus chain. IOTA lacks blocks and ...
19
votes
2answers
381 views

How can I safely store my IOTA seed?

I currently store my seed in a plain text file, backed up on a USB drive, which is a security risk. What is the safest way to store my seed since there is no IOTA hardware wallet available yet?
18
votes
1answer
2k views

Why were 4-byte integers chosen as the best way of storing individual trits within IOTA software?

update: Since this was posted, on Jun 11, an issue was opened by one of the IOTA Foundation developers to look into how to make the storage of trits use less memory. Although moving to a byte[] is not ...
17
votes
2answers
743 views

Without the Coordinator, how will the network decide which double-spend succeeds?

Since each double spend, from its perspective, is a valid transaction, they are equally likely to be selected as tips. How will multiple parties agree for certain which one has confirmed, in a timely ...
17
votes
2answers
353 views

Consensus - how is a single, non-conflicting graph (tangle) maintained?

In traditional blockchains consensus is maintained by proof of work such that the valid chain containing the most cumulative work is agreed to be the consensus chain. IOTA lacks blocks and ...
17
votes
2answers
318 views

How do I know if a pending transaction will be successful?

When I send or receive IOTA, I first see the transaction in my wallet as in pending. As the time pass, the transaction is still in pending. I have to wait half an hour minimum to do the reattach. And ...
16
votes
2answers
543 views

How to set up an IOTA Sensor for Data Marketplace?

I own a Raspberry Pi and many sensors. I already had some Sensor projects. How can I set up my own Raspberry Pi sensor to contribute to the data marketplace? Are there any Tutorials yet? RuuviLab's ...
16
votes
1answer
147 views

How can I set up a cold storage?

I have heard something about cold storage. What is the best way to set up a cold storage for IOTA and why is it safer?
16
votes
1answer
249 views

What kind of “invalid” transactions are transported by the network (and appear on tangle explorers?)

When looking at transactions on a tangle explorer, I often see "Unconfirmed" transactions that (when taking a closer look) can not get confirmed, but the tangle explorer does not show it to me. So I ...
15
votes
4answers
275 views

Will outsourcing POW ever be an issue?

If you want to send a transaction you have to do some proof of work. Are all IoT devices (e.g. small sensors) really capable of doing the proof of work? Will there ever be a necessity of services that ...
15
votes
1answer
152 views

Why do some of my transactions have Weight Magnitude 16, although I have set it to 14?

When looking at transactions in a tangle explorer website, some transactions like this (not mine) show up as Weight Magnitude 16. This also happens for my transactions where I am sure that I had set ...
15
votes
1answer
193 views

What is the distinction between a full node and a full public node?

Further, are there a different set of system requirements between the two, and if so, what is it?
15
votes
1answer
425 views

What would an attacker have to pay per transaction in a large-scale spam attack?

It is claimed that transactions are effectively free. However, they require a proof of work. This PoW is supposed to make spam attacks infeasible. So given an attacker renting hardware from a cloud ...
15
votes
1answer
281 views

Technical documentation of the IOTA protocol

To properly understand technology like this, I need to sit down and crunch the numbers, program it up, and learn from that. I can't find any technical, low-level documentation on the IOTA protocol. ...
14
votes
2answers
176 views

Can a node steal my seed?

Could someone theoretically set up a node to siphon seeds from people who connect to it? Or is the seed always safe? How is it handled internally?
14
votes
2answers
791 views

How does IOTA make itself resistant to quantum computing based attacks?

IOTA has been described as "quantum resistant" (not "quantum secure"). What steps did the developers take to make the protocol resistant, and are there further steps that need to be taken in the ...
14
votes
5answers
2k views

What is the average transaction time in IOTA?

In other blockchains, such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, the transaction time is limited by the block time. Even then, there's no guarantee your transaction will be incorporated into the next block. (I'll ...
14
votes
1answer
279 views

How does address reuse prevention affect scalability?

Address reuse is currently being prevented by a list of all addresses which have already sent a transaction (previousEpochsSpentAddresses.txt) and this list is checked by the full node (or remote node)...
14
votes
3answers
377 views

Is it possible to cancel a transaction?

I made a transaction from Android wallet to Exchange A of 10Gi. The transaction is in pending. I tried a few times to reattach, but the transaction is still in pending. I made a second transaction ...
13
votes
3answers
948 views

What information is leaked if I reuse an address?

Everyone knows that spending from an address multiple times is bad, because Winternitz OTS. But, what does that mean, exactly? What information is leaked in each signature, and how would an attacker ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the IOTA transaction data structure?

I'm vaguely familiar with Bitcoin's UTXO-based transaction structure and Ethereum's account-based/gas-including transaction structure. What does an IOTA transaction contain?
13
votes
3answers
2k views

How is data stored in the tangle?

What exactly is being stored in the Tangle if I send a set of data to someone? Is the whole data stored in the Tangle or does the data just pass through the Tangle. Is it just like putting a bag in an ...
13
votes
1answer
4k views

In the IOTA wallet, what does the Promote button do?

In the 2.5.5 version of the official IOTA wallet, "Reattach" seems to have been replaced with "Promote". What does Promote do that Reattach didn't, and how does it improve transaction confirmation?
13
votes
1answer
146 views

Difference between “Reboadcasting” and “Reattaching”

Could anybody explain what the difference between "Reboadcasting" and "Reattaching" is and what I should choose when a Tx is pending?
13
votes
1answer
598 views

Why does the signatureMessageFragment have a fixed size?

A transaction in IOTA consists of 2673 trytes. The biggest part is the signatureMessageFragment (more infos here) which has a size of 2187 trytes. It is used to store the signature of value ...
13
votes
3answers
2k views

What does the ATTACH TO TANGLE button do?

On the Receive screen in the IOTA Wallet there's a button labeled "Attach to Tangle": I thought attaching to tangle only applies to transactions, not addresses. What does this button do?
13
votes
2answers
236 views

How to provide an IOTA based service, considering the receiving address has to change on every withdrawal?

One of IOTAs main use cases is to provide a way for M2M (machine to machine) micro payments. Therefore services can be called by sending a transaction, including payload + funds, to a specific address....
13
votes
1answer
295 views

What are timestamps and how are they connected to smart contracts?

What exactly are timestamps? When do we see them in IOTA? And what is the correlation between timestamps and smart contracts?
13
votes
1answer
445 views

Persistence of important data on the Tangle

To this date, the IOTA network truncates all stored transactions after a snapshot, so that we basically only have an image of addresses with funds. Now lets assume following scenario: Company A ...
13
votes
0answers
383 views

How to determine how quickly the network detects double-spends?

In the question "How does the system sustain regular low-effort "splitting attacks"?" a scenario about the ability to disrupt the network by spamming double-spends and having the network ...
12
votes
3answers
295 views

How does reattaching a transaction increase the chance for confirmation?

It is common advice to reattach a pending transaction. But why do I have to do so from a technical perspective? In other words: why does the tip selection not pick up my transaction if it's pending ...
12
votes
2answers
400 views

Full node influence on scalability

Since transactions are propagated in the network using full nodes—can it be said that the number of full nodes influences the maximum Tangle scalability? To paraphrase, even if transaction validation ...
12
votes
1answer
253 views

Is there a difference between branch and trunk transactions?

I understand that a transaction confirms two other transactions (branch + trunk). Is there a special semantic or rule for branch and trunk or are this just two words chosen to denote the two ...
12
votes
1answer
103 views

How do I set up a datastream for sale?

So, datum.iota.org is offering access to data streams? Is there any way I could sell my data through the same network at this time?
12
votes
2answers
200 views

How does the coordinator sign milestones without compromising the private key?

All milestones are just signed transactions with teh address KPWCHICGJZXKE9GSUDXZYUAPLHAKAHYHDXNPHENTERYMMBQOPSQIDENXKLKCEYCPVTZQLEEJVYJZV9BWU. My understanding is that to sign a transaction, you do ...
12
votes
1answer
260 views

How can I start developing IXI Modules?

Looking at MAM.ixi or Snapshot.ixi, I noticed that IXI Modules are written in Javascript but they are calling Java methods and using Java Classes by assignments like: var Transaction = iri....
11
votes
2answers
2k views

What's the difference between a private key and a seed?

What is the difference between a private key and a seed? When people talk about the "secret key", do they mean the "private key? Are they the same? What are public keys? How are they related to ...
11
votes
6answers
392 views

How do I generate a wallet from a seed?

Specifically, how do I generate the wallet offline with a seed. I want to use dice to generate the seed and create the address from that seed.

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