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13 votes
3 answers
1k views

What information is leaked if I reuse an address?

Everyone knows that spending from an address multiple times is bad, because Winternitz OTS. But, what does that mean, exactly? What information is leaked in each signature, and how would an attacker ...
todofixthis's user avatar
  • 1,320
38 votes
2 answers
1k views

What are the prerequisites for shutting down the IOTA coordinator?

What conditions need to be met for the central coordinator to be shut down? Is there a number of transactions per second, a number of full IRI nodes or an update to the algorithm necessary?
brenzi's user avatar
  • 823
11 votes
3 answers
1k views

What are the minimal system requirements to run a full IRI node?

What is the minimal system that would be suitable for this task? What kind of system and OS would you recommend for this?
Ian Metten's user avatar
28 votes
9 answers
2k views

How to generate a seed safely?

I am sceptical about online generators. How could I generate a IOTA seed safely offline? Does it need to be on a specific format?
Mahus's user avatar
  • 501
14 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is the IOTA transaction data structure?

I'm vaguely familiar with Bitcoin's UTXO-based transaction structure and Ethereum's account-based/gas-including transaction structure. What does an IOTA transaction contain?
Richard Horrocks's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
3k views

What's the difference between a private key and a seed?

What is the difference between a private key and a seed? When people talk about the "secret key", do they mean the "private key? Are they the same? What are public keys? How are they related to ...
Zauz's user avatar
  • 4,454
10 votes
8 answers
559 views

A receive address is made public for donations, how do I safely withdraw funds?

I have a receive address that I have given out to other people, both for payments and donations; After transferring the funds to a new address, someone has donated to the previous address. How can I ...
Matt Clark's user avatar
32 votes
1 answer
674 views

How does the system sustain regular low-effort "splitting attacks"?

The whitepaper focuses mainly on attacks in which an attacker tries to double-spend. So the section about the splitting attack examines the case that an attacker tries to effectively create two forks ...
lex82's user avatar
  • 1,087
25 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is it possible to send pictures to the Tangle? What is the data limit per transaction?

As we all know, it is easily possible to convert ASCII to trytes. See this converter in the IOTA github: Converter If I now want to convert a whole picture like one of the Iota logo to trytes, how is ...
Tobi MZ's user avatar
  • 1,607
22 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is an IOTA "bundle"?

The IOTASear.ch tangle explorer allows searching for addresses, transactions and bundles. While the meaning of addresses and transactions seem clear to me, I am not aware of the purpose of bundles. ...
q9f's user avatar
  • 543
9 votes
2 answers
241 views

Does all kind of spam benefit the network?

It is frequently stated that spam even makes the network stronger by confirming other transactions. However, it is not difficult to imagine an attacker that either confirms primarily their own ...
lex82's user avatar
  • 1,087
28 votes
1 answer
2k views

What does the IOTA coordinator actually do?

We know that there is a coordinator, which helps to secure the network in order to prevent attacks in early stages of adoption. What does it do exactly, how does it work?
stpoa's user avatar
  • 397
13 votes
3 answers
2k views

What does the ATTACH TO TANGLE button do?

On the Receive screen in the IOTA Wallet there's a button labeled "Attach to Tangle": I thought attaching to tangle only applies to transactions, not addresses. What does this button do?
todofixthis's user avatar
  • 1,320
9 votes
1 answer
326 views

How are addresses calculated from the seed?

I was wondering how addresses are calculated from the seed. Specifically, I thought it was using the hash of the seed plus a nonce to create the address. But I would appreciate if someone could shed a ...
Dominik Harz's user avatar
19 votes
2 answers
807 views

Without the Coordinator, how will the network decide which double-spend succeeds?

Since each double spend, from its perspective, is a valid transaction, they are equally likely to be selected as tips. How will multiple parties agree for certain which one has confirmed, in a timely ...
takra's user avatar
  • 435
10 votes
1 answer
985 views

Why is the normalized hash considered insecure when containing the char 'M'

Looking at the code of the iota.lib.js' bundle creation mechanism, a normalized hash is computed and then checked for inclusion of 13 /* = M */. If one is found, the obsoleteTag is incremented, and ...
Akkumulator's user avatar
  • 1,468
10 votes
1 answer
178 views

Does IOTA become less accessible the further its value increases?

Rounded, right now a single IOTA is worth around $0.0000024. Yesterday it was worth $0.0000015. If the MIOTA price goes up to $500-$1,000 as some people have been forecasting, this means a single IOTA ...
James Donnelly's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
363 views

Does every node in the network have to know about all transactions issued by other nodes eventually?

With every node I mean the nodes issuing and validating transactions, so certainly full nodes, with light nodes I'm not sure. I understand that the tangle can be pruned and snapshots can be created ...
lex82's user avatar
  • 1,087
9 votes
1 answer
301 views

Why are the 50% I reveal when signing random?

Assumptions You reveal exactly 50% of your private key with the signature of a transaction. What part you reveal is random. (What information is leaked if I reuse an address?) Is this correct? The ...
Zauz's user avatar
  • 4,454
9 votes
2 answers
780 views

What is the Min Weight Magnitude and what implications arise from changing it?

The Min Weight Magnitude determines how 'hard' the POW puzzle is. How does this work? What are the implications when setting a lower or higher MWM, how does it impact the consense and are tx with ...
Akkumulator's user avatar
  • 1,468
8 votes
0 answers
595 views

What is the max possible transactions/second rate in IOTA?

Did anyone calculate the max amount of transactions per second which is possible in IOTA? As far as I understand the transactions rate is only limited by network's bandwidth of full nodes. Let's ...
alexpods's user avatar
  • 498
7 votes
2 answers
160 views

What is the chance that a supercomputer finds a Seed with money

I know that today it is almost impossible to find someones Seed. But what happens in the future. Will it ever be possible that a very fast supercomputer is checking million seeds per second to find ...
Vrom's user avatar
  • 1,946
5 votes
2 answers
1k views

In a transaction, what are "trunk", "branch" and "bundle" exactly?

I'm browsing the tangle explorer and found that transactions have fields called Branch, Bundle & Trunk, but cannot figure out what their meaning is exactly. As second part of my question, I ...
Davide C's user avatar
  • 209
5 votes
1 answer
491 views

What is the initial own weight of a transaction in IOTA?

According to the white paper for IOTA the initial own weight of any transaction is 3n, where n is a positive integer. However, in section 4 it says that the own weight value is capped to one to ...
Saurav Das's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
229 views

Where is PoW being executed when using the CLI wallet?

It‘s actually all in the title: When using the “official” command line interface wallet (https://github.com/iotaledger/cli-app) and e.g. attaching an address, is PoW executed on the client or by the ...
ralf's user avatar
  • 1,063
4 votes
3 answers
279 views

How many addresses do I have to reattach after a snapshot?

I heard rumors about double-spending is possible after a snapshot if you don't create new addresses. Now I have 70 addresses in my actual wallet/seed. Does that mean I have to create 71 new addresses ...
Vrom's user avatar
  • 1,946
4 votes
1 answer
124 views

Why does sending take so long? Does it depend only on POW or also on something else?

If I do a transaction with my 2.6GHz laptop it last quite a long time in the status "sending" (1-3minutes). I know that it is because of the power of work that has to be done. But is the time always ...
Vrom's user avatar
  • 1,946
4 votes
3 answers
268 views

What happens to a Subtangle if it attaches to an invalid transaction?

If I have a large offline Subtangle with 1000 transactions and I choose to bring it online by attaching it to tip T, what happens if tip T ends up being invalid later on? Does my entire Subtangle ...
Matt's user avatar
  • 399
4 votes
1 answer
94 views

How do I configure a public node?

How can I configure my node such that it is secure for public access? I am aware that I can use either the --remote-limit-api launch argument, or by setting it in my ini; REMOTE_LIMIT_API=...
Matt Clark's user avatar
54 votes
2 answers
5k views

Why does IOTA use a ternary number system?

What are the benefits of the ternary number system over the more traditional binary number system? Are there drawbacks to ternary with respect to binary, aside from the obvious of less adoption?
dreid's user avatar
  • 1,102
30 votes
5 answers
5k views

What is the total supply of IOTA?

In Bitcoin the total supply is capped at 21 million BTC. In Ethereum things are slightly looser. (I don't know what their total supply will be.) What's the case for IOTA? Is there a cap, and if so, ...
Richard Horrocks's user avatar
17 votes
2 answers
346 views

How do I know if a pending transaction will be successful?

When I send or receive IOTA, I first see the transaction in my wallet as in pending. As the time pass, the transaction is still in pending. I have to wait half an hour minimum to do the reattach. And ...
overkill22's user avatar
14 votes
2 answers
197 views

Can a node steal my seed?

Could someone theoretically set up a node to siphon seeds from people who connect to it? Or is the seed always safe? How is it handled internally?
Muppet's user avatar
  • 908
13 votes
2 answers
286 views

How to provide an IOTA based service, considering the receiving address has to change on every withdrawal?

One of IOTAs main use cases is to provide a way for M2M (machine to machine) micro payments. Therefore services can be called by sending a transaction, including payload + funds, to a specific address....
Akkumulator's user avatar
  • 1,468
13 votes
1 answer
526 views

Persistence of important data on the Tangle

To this date, the IOTA network truncates all stored transactions after a snapshot, so that we basically only have an image of addresses with funds. Now lets assume following scenario: Company A ...
Luca M.'s user avatar
  • 131
13 votes
3 answers
2k views

How is data stored in the tangle?

What exactly is being stored in the Tangle if I send a set of data to someone? Is the whole data stored in the Tangle or does the data just pass through the Tangle. Is it just like putting a bag in an ...
Vrom's user avatar
  • 1,946
12 votes
3 answers
337 views

How does reattaching a transaction increase the chance for confirmation?

It is common advice to reattach a pending transaction. But why do I have to do so from a technical perspective? In other words: why does the tip selection not pick up my transaction if it's pending ...
Akkumulator's user avatar
  • 1,468
9 votes
1 answer
362 views

When is a pending transaction technically confirmed?

I'd like to understand the steps that lead to an eventual confirmation of a transaction. I understand that there are several child transactions required and that the individual weights of each of ...
Muppet's user avatar
  • 908
9 votes
3 answers
136 views

Secure Way to Copy & Paste Seed into Desktop Wallet

I am afraid of keyloggers or other malware on my computer. What is a secure way to copy and paste the Seed from my password manager into the desktop wallet?
Vrom's user avatar
  • 1,946
9 votes
3 answers
1k views

Full node vs permanode

I would like to clarify the distinction between the pragmatics and incentive of running a full node vs a permanode. Could you comment if my statements correct,and if necessary correct mine to ...
user3223162's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
632 views

Can IOTA have a hard fork?

With so many forks occurring in Bitcoin (Bitcoin Classic, Cash, Gold, Diamond, Silver, ...) I was wondering if it was possible for IOTA to have a fork? I know that IOTA uses a "DAG" (Directed ...
Avelino's user avatar
  • 435
8 votes
1 answer
1k views

How exactly are transactions verified and confirmed in IOTA

What I understand is when I purchase an IOTA the source which I make my purchase is one of the node in the network of nodes. This node uses the Monte Carlo algorithm to pick two previous transactions ...
amitnair92's user avatar
8 votes
4 answers
255 views

Why is my transaction not getting confirmed?

What can I do to speed-up the transaction’s confirmation? When should I reattach (replay) a transaction?
Ian Metten's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
171 views

Full Node Set-Up Issue: UnsatisfiedLinkError

I'm trying to set up a full-node but I keep getting this error message: 11/28 [main] INFO com.iota.iri.IRI - Welcome to IRI 1.4.1.2 Exception in thread "main" java.lang.UnsatisfiedLinkError: C:\...
user262's user avatar
  • 83
8 votes
1 answer
201 views

How is address reuse prevented in the current wallet implementation?

When trying to send to a foreign address, I got the following error recently: How does my wallet know, that this address has already been used for sending? It's quite an old address, so I assume I ...
janowitz's user avatar
  • 321
7 votes
1 answer
159 views

How to Securely Outsource Proof of Work Calculation?

In another question about proof of work on Internet of Things devices one answer mentions "it would be capable of outsourcing PoW within it's local area network". This piques my interest. How is ...
Helmar's user avatar
  • 1,293
7 votes
2 answers
427 views

How to start a new offline subtangle?

Can a new offline subtangle be created without referencing any existing transactions? Or does the offline node which is running this offline tangle need to start out with some global history and pick ...
Matt's user avatar
  • 399
7 votes
2 answers
880 views

Can one send a zero value transaction from any address to any address?

Since zero value transactions do not require a signature, I assume one can send 0 value tx from any address, even if he does not own the corresponding seed. Is this assumption correct?
Akkumulator's user avatar
  • 1,468
6 votes
1 answer
943 views

How can I recover my IOTA balance?

I transferred iota from Bitfinex to my wallet in October. And at first the wallet displayed the balance but then it went to zero. How can I troubleshoot/recover my balance?
Hyetigran's user avatar
  • 163
6 votes
4 answers
225 views

Do transactions within the same bundle need to reference specific branch and trunk hashes?

When adding a new transaction, I get two "random" other transactions to use as my branch and trunk. But if I have several transactions in a bundle, does each one get their own random two? Or should ...
Andrew Arrow's user avatar

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