Questions tagged [tangle]

For questions about the tangle, the directed acyclic graph which has the same function in IOTA as the blockchain has in other cryptocurrencies.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
27
votes
1answer
1k views

What does the IOTA coordinator actually do?

We know that there is a coordinator, which helps to secure the network in order to prevent attacks in early stages of adoption. What does it do exactly, how does it work?
24
votes
1answer
1k views

Is it possible to send pictures to the Tangle? What is the data limit per transaction?

As we all know, it is easily possible to convert ASCII to trytes. See this converter in the IOTA github: Converter If I now want to convert a whole picture like one of the Iota logo to trytes, how is ...
20
votes
3answers
333 views
+50

Consensus - what convergence properties does the tangle have when multiple conflicting transactions are built upon by different parts of the network

In traditional blockchains consensus is maintained by proof of work such that the valid chain containing the most cumulative work is agreed to be the consensus chain. IOTA lacks blocks and ...
18
votes
2answers
365 views
+50

Consensus - how is a single, non-conflicting graph (tangle) maintained?

In traditional blockchains consensus is maintained by proof of work such that the valid chain containing the most cumulative work is agreed to be the consensus chain. IOTA lacks blocks and ...
13
votes
3answers
2k views

How is data stored in the tangle?

What exactly is being stored in the Tangle if I send a set of data to someone? Is the whole data stored in the Tangle or does the data just pass through the Tangle. Is it just like putting a bag in an ...
13
votes
1answer
462 views

Persistence of important data on the Tangle

To this date, the IOTA network truncates all stored transactions after a snapshot, so that we basically only have an image of addresses with funds. Now lets assume following scenario: Company A ...
13
votes
0answers
386 views

How to determine how quickly the network detects double-spends?

In the question "How does the system sustain regular low-effort "splitting attacks"?" a scenario about the ability to disrupt the network by spamming double-spends and having the network ...
10
votes
2answers
733 views

What are the IOTA disk space needs?

This is along the lines of "What are the minimal system requirements to run a full node (iri)?", but I'm specifically asking about disk space. The current Bitcoin blockchain data is around 170 GB in ...
10
votes
1answer
340 views

Does every node in the network have to know about all transactions issued by other nodes eventually?

With every node I mean the nodes issuing and validating transactions, so certainly full nodes, with light nodes I'm not sure. I understand that the tangle can be pruned and snapshots can be created ...
10
votes
2answers
124 views

What exactly is a snapshot? Why do we need it? And is there always an update when a snapshot occures?

Can someone explain the pupose of a snapshot. And why does it always come together with an update?
9
votes
2answers
55 views

What is IOTA trading off giving up Blockchain and adopting DAG?

I read a lot of documentation about the pros of DAG over Blockchain. What are the trade-offs of adopting DAG?
9
votes
1answer
397 views

Where can I find the Genesis transaction?

Is there any Tangle explorer where I can find the Genesis transaction and browse from there through the Tangle? In Bitcoin I already found the Genesis Block.
9
votes
3answers
206 views

Is there any point to running a full node that creates no new transactions?

We are hearing a lot, that slow confirmation times are a symptom of there not being enough full nodes and we are encouraged to set up a full node for ourselves. I have done this and I have targeted ...
9
votes
0answers
346 views

Why does the tangle exhibit clumping?

In the Iota whitepaper the tangle is depicted as a uni-directional graph with a uniformly random set of connections between graph nodes. In the current implementation the true topology of the tangle ...
8
votes
1answer
110 views

How would I explain IOTA/the Tangle to someone who isn't technical?

I can just about explain the concept of a standard blockchain and mining, in very simplified terms, to a family member. Things get slightly trickier when you introduce the idea of smart contracts and ...
7
votes
2answers
350 views

How long does the proof of work take today and in future? [duplicate]

Can someone explain how long the proof of work needs today and how long it may take in the future? I always think about if paying in a supermarket with IOTA will ever be possible. And right now I need ...
7
votes
1answer
185 views

Does a wallet actually verify or validate two other transactions?

This is to confirm my understanding: In many talks and posts, it is said that the wallet or client of a node validated or verifies two other transactions. I wonder, whether this is the best ...
6
votes
2answers
227 views

How does a reattached transaction impact the tangle?

Do reattached transactions get removed from their original position and can I reattach even if the transaction is referenced by other transactions? Assume the tangle looks like this: (green: ...
6
votes
1answer
157 views

What does the “block number” in the iota wallet represent?

My iota wallet displays something that I would assume to be a block number in the lower left corner: 291911 But being aware of the Tangle structure, I know there are no blocks in iota. What does this ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Is double spending possible in IOTA?

It is mentioned in Tangle's white paper (technology behind IOTA) that From the above discussion it is important to recognize that the inequality λ > μ should be true for the system to be secure. In ...
6
votes
2answers
265 views

What is the goal of the Nash Equilibrium blog posts?

I've just read through part two of the Nash Equilibrium blog post (linked below) and I'd like a bit of clarification. Is the ultimate goal of modeling the IOTA-specific Nash Equilibrium scenarios to ...
6
votes
3answers
239 views

Theoretical delay before first approval

I'm reading the white-paper about the tangle. In pages 8 to 10, the author is calculating the average time for first approval of a tip on a stationary tangle. The first result is that under low load: ...
6
votes
1answer
227 views

Difference between score and cumulative weight

What is the difference between score and cumulative weight (of a transaction), in IOTA white paper?
6
votes
1answer
106 views

Difference between node and site

In the whitepaper is written: A quick note on terminology: sites are transactions represented on the tangle graph. The network is composed of nodes; that is, nodes are entities that issue and ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

How to read the Tangle database?

For infinite number of reasons it might be interesting to access transaction history stored on the Tangle. I tried to do that myself, because I was interested in how many addresses are at risk because ...
6
votes
1answer
49 views

Which transaction do I have to reattach?

I have 5 times reattached the same transaction. All five has status pending. Does it matter which one of them I use for another reattach? Maybe this was the mistake?
6
votes
2answers
203 views

Will MAM not lead to network congestion?

In the MAM introduction article there is for example this part about the message size: These messages can have any size; however, a heuristic evaluation would demonstrate smaller messages ...
6
votes
2answers
215 views

Why do we reattach instead of sending a second transaction that confirms our first?

The spam attacks prove that its possible to attach a transaction to whichever tip you want. Normal operation of the tangle is to attach a transaction to two random tips and then wait for another node ...
5
votes
2answers
545 views

Transactions per second

Why are transactions at the Tangle Explorer at approximately 1-2 transactions per second? Is that the current transaction rate IOTA is achieving? That seems very low. When should we see the ...
5
votes
1answer
736 views

Extracting data from the tangle

The ownership distribution of Iota has been written about but HOW does one get these addresses? I looked at the Iota API and dont see an obvious way. And the tangle seems like some of it is in binary ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

In a transaction, what are “trunk”, “branch” and “bundle” exactly?

I'm browsing the tangle explorer and found that transactions have fields called Branch, Bundle & Trunk, but cannot figure out what their meaning is exactly. As second part of my question, I ...
5
votes
1answer
135 views

What is the blowball problem and what causes it?

According to IOTA Engineering: IRI 1.5.3 addresses the blowball problem seen on Mainnet. What exactly is the blowball problem and what causes it?
5
votes
1answer
389 views

What does it mean that “the tangle is network-bound instead of hash-power-bound like blockchain”?

Can someone explain me in a very simple way what should an attacker do to double spend in IOTA? In the whitepaper I read that a double spend transaction should outweigh the legitimate subtangle. ...
5
votes
2answers
4k views

How will Smart Contracts be implemented on the Tangle, providing timestamps are enforced? [closed]

On the main DAG? On a second layer? Or something else? How does it work basically?
5
votes
1answer
109 views

When do nodes sync their subtangle with the neighbours?

Does this happen after every transaction? In discrete steps? Is it always synced with neighbours only, or is there some super tangle that it syncs with? Is that the case as long as the coordinator ...
5
votes
2answers
92 views

Running a full node

Can someone explain to an average joe like me how to run a node in the Tangle. Do I have to be an expert or somehow knowledgable about some kind of stuff? Or is it possible for the common people to ...
5
votes
1answer
132 views

Does the tangle store any node-specific information?

When a node broadcasts a transaction/bundle, is the node IP or hostname only revealed to the node's immediate neighbors, or does this information accompany the broadcast in some way? Does a ...
5
votes
2answers
73 views

How to prevent bloating if all tangle is supposed to be known by everyone?

I'm new to IOTA, from the reading of the whitepaper and from this question, "Does every node in the network have to know about all transactions issued by other nodes eventually?" I understand that ...
5
votes
0answers
120 views

Why are Oyster Pearl's transactions clumping like this, and not getting confirmed? Is this an issue with the tip selection algo?

It appears that Oyster Pearl, a data transmission service built on the tangle, has launched their testnet and is submitting transactions to IOTA tangle live and tagging them (see above image). As we ...
5
votes
0answers
231 views

MAM message encryption

According to the documentation message encryption is done in following way Each message is encrypted with a one-time pad that consists of the channel ID and the index of the key used to sign the ...
5
votes
0answers
61 views

Parse UDP packet into a bundle

I am exploring the https://github.com/iotaledger/iota.lib.go for the purpose of running sort of "analysis" with my current remote node. I couldn't find any code that can parse/validate the transaction ...
4
votes
2answers
140 views

Does the proof of work needed to attach a transaction fluctuate, if so, what causes the increase/decrease?

Can someone explain if the proof of work effort varies with the number of nodes, the number of transactions being made and the proof of work being done by other users. Does it increase over time? I'...
4
votes
2answers
474 views

Pseudocode to walk the tangle?

I would like to pick a random node, call getNodeInfo and see it's latest milestone. Then I'd like to walk the graph (depth first search? breadth first search?) backwards to the start and map the ...
4
votes
1answer
90 views

What determines the various shapes that show on the Tangle Explorer?

The Tangle explorer is currently displaying an "IC". Is this a secret message? What determines the various shapes that show on the Tangle Explorer? Here is another example, while The Coordinator ...
4
votes
2answers
255 views

Iota Whitepaper: What is “k” in Section 3?

The IOTA Whitepaper in Section 3 does not seem to define k. Is k the number of verifications required by a transaction as noted earlier in the Whitepaper or something else? If it's the former I do not ...
4
votes
1answer
119 views

Walking the tangle—How to get the parents?

Looking at Pseudocode to walk the tangle?, in order to walk the tangle you look at the open tips and then you look for the parents. getTips gives you a list of all the open tips. What API call is ...
4
votes
1answer
303 views

What are IOTA flash channels and how can users set them up?

I have heard that flash channels are a way to make instant transactions off tangle. How does that happen and what is the process for setting up flash channels?
4
votes
1answer
152 views

Attach to Tangle Transaction

The "attach to tangle"-transaction is a special zero value transaction to attach a newly generated address to tangle. The "attach to tangle"-transactions contains signatures such as following ...
4
votes
1answer
139 views

When would it be required to intentionally partition the Iota transaction graph?

According to the original IOTA post on bitcointalk, partition tolerance is not only defined as the ability for the IOTA transaction graph to resist the reversal of large sets of transactions, but also ...
4
votes
1answer
126 views

“The Tangle” white paper: How the probability of double-spending event end with this approximation (t_0 μ)/w_1?

If the attacker managed to obtain a nonce that gives the double‐ spending transaction a weight of at least 3n0 during the time interval of length t0, then the attack succeeds. The probability of this ...