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Questions tagged [security]

For questions relating to the security of IoTA and how to mitigate these issues or avoid them altogether.

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32 votes
1 answer
676 views

How does the system sustain regular low-effort "splitting attacks"?

The whitepaper focuses mainly on attacks in which an attacker tries to double-spend. So the section about the splitting attack examines the case that an attacker tries to effectively create two forks ...
lex82's user avatar
  • 1,087
28 votes
9 answers
2k views

How to generate a seed safely?

I am sceptical about online generators. How could I generate a IOTA seed safely offline? Does it need to be on a specific format?
Mahus's user avatar
  • 501
23 votes
1 answer
664 views

What can an attacker with 34% of total hash power do?

At the moment the coordinator protects the network from 34% attacks. What exactly can and can't such an attacker do when the coordinator is shut down?
Ian Metten's user avatar
19 votes
2 answers
406 views

How can I safely store my IOTA seed?

I currently store my seed in a plain text file, backed up on a USB drive, which is a security risk. What is the safest way to store my seed since there is no IOTA hardware wallet available yet?
fijter's user avatar
  • 1,099
15 votes
2 answers
1k views

How does IOTA make itself resistant to quantum computing based attacks?

IOTA has been described as "quantum resistant" (not "quantum secure"). What steps did the developers take to make the protocol resistant, and are there further steps that need to be taken in the ...
dreid's user avatar
  • 1,102
14 votes
2 answers
198 views

Can a node steal my seed?

Could someone theoretically set up a node to siphon seeds from people who connect to it? Or is the seed always safe? How is it handled internally?
Muppet's user avatar
  • 908
13 votes
3 answers
1k views

What information is leaked if I reuse an address?

Everyone knows that spending from an address multiple times is bad, because Winternitz OTS. But, what does that mean, exactly? What information is leaked in each signature, and how would an attacker ...
todofixthis's user avatar
  • 1,320
10 votes
1 answer
986 views

Why is the normalized hash considered insecure when containing the char 'M'

Looking at the code of the iota.lib.js' bundle creation mechanism, a normalized hash is computed and then checked for inclusion of 13 /* = M */. If one is found, the obsoleteTag is incremented, and ...
Akkumulator's user avatar
  • 1,468
10 votes
0 answers
226 views

How would IOTA handle a spam attack that is NOT attempting to successfully double spend, but merely make the network unusable? [duplicate]

So it seems like all of the security solutions mentioned so far are focused on preventing double spend attacks. But what about attacks that aren't motivated by actually successfully double spending?...
Ian Fisch's user avatar
  • 100
9 votes
1 answer
328 views

How are addresses calculated from the seed?

I was wondering how addresses are calculated from the seed. Specifically, I thought it was using the hash of the seed plus a nonce to create the address. But I would appreciate if someone could shed a ...
Dominik Harz's user avatar
9 votes
3 answers
137 views

Secure Way to Copy & Paste Seed into Desktop Wallet

I am afraid of keyloggers or other malware on my computer. What is a secure way to copy and paste the Seed from my password manager into the desktop wallet?
Vrom's user avatar
  • 1,946
9 votes
1 answer
117 views

Does every pending transaction pose a threat for my remaining funds in the wallet?

A moderator on slack told me that every pending transaction poses a threat for my remaining funds in the wallet. Especially when a transaction stays pending for a long time or never confirms. As far ...
user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
97 views

DB snapshots for the masses - are there any risks?

I have created a tutorial and a slack channel #fullnodes-ger for the installation of a full node (currently only german) and do a DB snapshot of me for many people who follow this tutorial, so that ...
Zoran Kikic's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
203 views

How is address reuse prevented in the current wallet implementation?

When trying to send to a foreign address, I got the following error recently: How does my wallet know, that this address has already been used for sending? It's quite an old address, so I assume I ...
janowitz's user avatar
  • 321
8 votes
1 answer
137 views

Is it safe to expose the API to the public? [duplicate]

I just got a full node up and running, following the guide on here http://iota.partners/. I have a firewall on, so all ports are blocked except for UDP 14600 and TCP 15600. In my iota.ini file I have ...
Bjørnar Hagen's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
351 views

Address re-use and snapshot

If an address was used more than once to spend, as was the case in the September claim, are addresses that were weakened for violating the Winternitz, One Time Signiture architecture of the tangle, ...
KelpieOnPond's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
647 views

Can someone explain very simplified how the Winternitz OTS/Lamport OTS works?

I read the Wiki example, but I am still confused to be honest. Could someone provide a really simple example?
Muppet's user avatar
  • 908
7 votes
2 answers
219 views

What is the difference between "double-spending" and "address-reuse"?

As far as I understood: double-spending: is when you do a second outgoing transaction while another one is still in pending. (this is possible only with Android wallet, because the light wallet [...
overkill22's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
880 views

Can one send a zero value transaction from any address to any address?

Since zero value transactions do not require a signature, I assume one can send 0 value tx from any address, even if he does not own the corresponding seed. Is this assumption correct?
Akkumulator's user avatar
  • 1,468
7 votes
1 answer
800 views

Do I Have to Change My Seed after Multiple Transactions?

Is it recommended to change the seed and transfer the funds after creating a higher, specific amount of Receive addresses and doing multiple (20+), completed transactions (no double-spending of course)...
ZiiZou's user avatar
  • 115
7 votes
1 answer
112 views

What prevents a malicious node from receiving a transaction and, instead of relaying it, attempting to compromise the now-weakened address?

For example, this scenario: I broadcast a transaction from a previously-unspent-from address, for a large amount, say 1 Ti. The full node I broadcast to is a malicious actor who has been waiting for ...
dreid's user avatar
  • 1,102
7 votes
1 answer
99 views

Why are there no safeguards in place to prevent sending a transaction to a used-up address?

I have offered up one of my addresses to be used for donation purposes; I withdrew funds to a different address, and a now a third party has deposited funds to an address that has already been emptied ...
Matt Clark's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
316 views

Why aren't seeds longer than 81 trytes more secure?

From the wallet FAQ: In order to ensure that only you got access to your iotas you ought to create a sufficiently complex seed. This means a randomized 81 character seed consisting of latin letters ...
todofixthis's user avatar
  • 1,320
6 votes
1 answer
846 views

How does Curl-P's copy protection feature work?

I've read in a few articles that the Curl-P hashing function was designed with known practical collisions, intended as a "copy protection" feature. I'm still having trouble wrapping my head around ...
todofixthis's user avatar
  • 1,320
6 votes
3 answers
414 views

How can I verify whether an address I've created offline is valid?

For security reasons I've created an IOTA address offline. Before I transfer into this address, how can I ensure this address is valid?
James Donnelly's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
72 views

Can I be forced to reuse an address by confirming a transaction that is part of a double-spend attempt?

Imagine somebody injects two transactions d1 and d2 into the network that together represent a double-spend attempt. Having only incomplete information of all latest transactions in the network, I see ...
lex82's user avatar
  • 1,087
6 votes
2 answers
335 views

Exchange Winternitz one-time signatures

Are there any Winternitz alternatives out there which on the one hand make quantum computer attacks hard and on the other hand don't mess with the ability to reuse an address? Or are these properties ...
Jupiter Jones's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
398 views

What happens if I receive IOTAs at an address I've already spent from?

Suppose I spend funds from an address, but then there's a software bug, or user error, or somebody sends IOTAs to that address afterward, and now I have a used address with a non-zero balance! What ...
todofixthis's user avatar
  • 1,320
6 votes
1 answer
527 views

What prevents someone from using a Precomputed POW Spam Attack against the network?

What prevents someone from using a Precomputed POW Spam Attack against the network? A theoretical attack could use pre-made transactions to be released before their network expiry dates. Rounds of ...
user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
222 views

Authenticated remote IRI API calls. Fullnode startup flags and config

I want to enable API calls to my full node from an host besides localhost. The question is what startup flags or equivalent entries in an .ini config file do I need to make authenticated API calls? ...
IW01's user avatar
  • 121
6 votes
2 answers
121 views

Good practice how to choose ports

I've setup a full node and while doing so was wondering about the following: 1. Would it be safer not to use the same prominent ports as everybody else does (e.g. 14600, 14700, 14265). If instead the ...
grmmgrmm's user avatar
  • 171
5 votes
2 answers
309 views

What's with all the pending/unconfirmed transactions with the "STOLEN"?

I've noticed that every few seconds transactions show up on live Tangle trackers with a tag of: 9999STOLEN9IOTAS999F***9YOU Here a pending one valued at $144k which appeared 3 minutes ago: ...
James Donnelly's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
276 views

Should full nodes be public?

Since part of the security comes from it being hard to find enough nodes to peer with to influence the selected transactions, should full nodes be mostly hidden? Will a IOTA attack consist of botnets ...
w00t's user avatar
  • 185
5 votes
1 answer
326 views

How to send data payload and funds in a secure/immutable way?

For me, one of the main use cases for IOTA regarding IOT was to be able to send data and funds in an atomic, immutable way. E.g. sending a bundle including parameters, transferred in the ...
Akkumulator's user avatar
  • 1,468
5 votes
1 answer
425 views

What does it mean that "the tangle is network-bound instead of hash-power-bound like blockchain"?

Can someone explain me in a very simple way what should an attacker do to double spend in IOTA? In the whitepaper I read that a double spend transaction should outweigh the legitimate subtangle. ...
Ale's user avatar
  • 53
5 votes
1 answer
124 views

On average, what % of my private key is compromised on the first address re-use, and what exponential effect does it have on security?

Each time we use an address, 50% of your private key is revealed at random. When 50% of the private key is revealed, a computer would have to do 2^256 computations to crack it, similar to the SHA-...
aboose's user avatar
  • 3,135
5 votes
0 answers
245 views

MAM message encryption

According to the documentation message encryption is done in following way Each message is encrypted with a one-time pad that consists of the channel ID and the index of the key used to sign the ...
Infinity's user avatar
  • 263
5 votes
2 answers
95 views

How much of my security is improved using other levels of security when generating the seed?

I had a hard time answering this question because I do not know how much security levels improve security in quantitative terms. Is this right? e.g. (Hashspace increment) 81 trits => 27^81 ^1 (low ...
Avelino's user avatar
  • 435
4 votes
2 answers
537 views

How many full IOTA nodes are there, and how many do there need to be?

How many full nodes are there currently in the network? Are there any sites that track the currently connected nodes in real-time? Leading on from this - which should perhaps be a separate question - ...
Richard Horrocks's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
85 views

Does reattaching a transaction compromise my private key for the source address?

The answers to this question state that reusing the same address for spending several times seriously compromises my private key so that should never be done. However, isn't this exactly what is ...
lex82's user avatar
  • 1,087
4 votes
1 answer
98 views

Is this an official source of the IOTA wallet?

https://github.com/iotaledger/wallet/releases/tag/v2.5.7 Is this release from iota I have got v2.5.6 before I download just wanted to make sure this is right wallet and it’s not a scam Thanks
Rishab 's user avatar
  • 127
4 votes
1 answer
94 views

How do I configure a public node?

How can I configure my node such that it is secure for public access? I am aware that I can use either the --remote-limit-api launch argument, or by setting it in my ini; REMOTE_LIMIT_API=...
Matt Clark's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
97 views

What does the `security` param for `getNewAddress` do?

When I create addresses in the API library (i.e., using getNewAddress()), there is an optional security parameter. What does this parameter do, and what values does it accept?
todofixthis's user avatar
  • 1,320
4 votes
1 answer
125 views

How is a Seed stored in an IOTA wallet?

How is a Seed stored in an IOTA wallet? Can I gain my Seed back if I lose it?
Hund's user avatar
  • 420
4 votes
1 answer
87 views

Are there any security considerations regarding running full node?

I have been thinking about setting up a dedicated full node to support the Iota network. In this case would be running some variant of Linux on a dedicated server that would at least meet the ...
Ronnie's user avatar
  • 143
4 votes
2 answers
667 views

How to get iota out of an address that has already been used twice?

Is it possible to get IOTAs safely out of an address from which two or more transactions were made already? With safely I mean that there is no chance to get hacked if the third or later transaction ...
mio's user avatar
  • 175
4 votes
0 answers
125 views

Hosting a Full Node - Best Practice [closed]

Hosting a full node results in some security questions. Which API Parameters (--remote-limit-api) are necessary to accept connections from light wallets without giving them to much permission?
bumblebee's user avatar
  • 137
3 votes
3 answers
121 views

Sending seeds to someone securely

If I want to send a seed to someone. How would you do it securely? Is it maybe even possible through the tangle? For example I have a seed with 50Miota and I want to give it away to a friend who ...
Vrom's user avatar
  • 1,946
3 votes
1 answer
218 views

Mechanism used to Claim at risk addresses

What Mechanism was used to Claim the at risk addresses? (from the September and October events) How Is it possible to move anothers address into an amalgamated foundation address?
KelpieOnPond's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

IOTA Winternitz Signature Scheme Details

IOTA uses Winternitz one time signature scheme (W-OTS). Page no 45 W-OTS uses one-way function f and cryptographic hash function g. W-OTS selects parameter w > = 2, which is number of bits to be ...
Infinity's user avatar
  • 263