Questions tagged [legacy-protocol]

Questions about the legacy protocol (which was switched off in Mainnet on April 28, 2021). It used ternary message encoding and Winternitz one-time signatures.

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What is the state tracking approach in IOTA IRI?

It is important to keep track of the state, e.g., in order to perform verification of transactions. While it is possible to reconstruct the most updated state by starting from the initial state and ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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How is IOTA´s transaction hash determined?

Ive been looking through documentation and articles but couldnt really find anything about it. I assume its the hash of all concatenated attributes? I am not talking about the bundle hash. And a ...
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2 answers
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toTrytes() does not work

I'm always getting this error without understanding why. TypeError: Cannot read property 'toTrytes' of undefined Code: // Require the use of IOTA library const Iota = require('@iota/core') // ...
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2 votes
1 answer
104 views

Converting bytes to trites using IOTA libraries

Most IOTA libraries (at least C#, and Java) have a Converter, that has a getTrits method. public static void GetTrits( sbyte[] bytes, int[] trits ) It has two arrays as parameters. The input,...
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4 votes
2 answers
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What is Qubic exactly? A programming language? An IOTA Smart Contract?

According to this blog entry : IOTA does not “natively” support smart contracts. The IOTA Foundation has publicly stated, that smart contracts will not be a feature of the IOTA core but ...
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5 votes
2 answers
475 views

Decentralized milestone issuance scheme?

I decided to preserve the original post in a pastebin for reference but the edits here address pretty much everything i think. Here is the link to the original post. There is also a link to a fresh ...
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9 votes
1 answer
127 views

Why does the least significant trit come first?

What is the reason that the least significant trit is at the very left in the IOTA ternary implementation when all other numbering systems have it at the very right? For T = -1: (dec)8 is T01 instead ...
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6 votes
2 answers
294 views

What are the differences between Qubic smart contracts and Ethereum smart contracts?

I would like to know the differences between Qubic smart contracts and Ethereum smart contracts (for example: Turing-completeness, oracle-like behaviors...).
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18 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why were 4-byte integers chosen as the best way of storing individual trits within IOTA software?

update: Since this was posted, on Jun 11, an issue was opened by one of the IOTA Foundation developers to look into how to make the storage of trits use less memory. Although moving to a byte[] is not ...
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3 votes
1 answer
838 views

What smart contract language does IOTA use?

What smart contract language does IOTA use? Solidity?
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3 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why is JINN Ternary?

I was just learning about skrmions and could not help but realize that they could produce a ternary state computer. But why is JINN in ternary? What are the benefits of this in the current current or ...
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6 votes
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Why are three trits in a tryte?

What was the motivation behind making a tryte equal to three trits? Seems counter-intuitive that a byte contains more combinations than a tryte—at least from a semantical perspective.
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4 votes
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What is a conflicting transaction?

The term is used many times on the whitepaper but I can't find a definition. What would be examples of a conflicting transaction? Extract form Whitepaper: The main idea of the tangle is the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
81 views

Can a smart contract make calls (e.g. web service calls) to outside of the network?

Will IOTA smart contracts be able to make calls to external web services or other APIs, or is it too early to tell?
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1 vote
1 answer
66 views

How to save the bundle trytes to reattach after a snapshot? [closed]

How to save the bundle trytes to reattach it after a snapshot? How to do this using the JavaScript library?
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  • 1,468
10 votes
1 answer
975 views

Why is the normalized hash considered insecure when containing the char 'M'

Looking at the code of the iota.lib.js' bundle creation mechanism, a normalized hash is computed and then checked for inclusion of 13 /* = M */. If one is found, the obsoleteTag is incremented, and ...
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3 votes
1 answer
111 views

When did iota devs adopt ternary over binary?

I read the Nov 30 posting , which was great. Just not clear when project became so aligned to ternary.
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4 votes
1 answer
477 views

Where is the message in the transaction bundle?

I am working with the nodeJS lib. I made a transaction with an address, amount, message and tag as inferred from api.prototype.prepareTransfers in the JSlib. Then I looked up that transaction with api....
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  • 143
9 votes
1 answer
303 views

How are addresses calculated from the seed?

I was wondering how addresses are calculated from the seed. Specifically, I thought it was using the hash of the seed plus a nonce to create the address. But I would appreciate if someone could shed a ...
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7 votes
1 answer
695 views

What are the maths to convert bytes <-> trytes?

I've heard that one byte contains as much data as "about 5 trits". However, I'm not entirely clear on how the conversion works. How do I convert binary data into balanced ternary (and vice versa)? ...
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5 votes
2 answers
90 views

How much of my security is improved using other levels of security when generating the seed?

I had a hard time answering this question because I do not know how much security levels improve security in quantitative terms. Is this right? e.g. (Hashspace increment) 81 trits => 27^81 ^1 (low ...
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  • 435
10 votes
8 answers
551 views

A receive address is made public for donations, how do I safely withdraw funds?

I have a receive address that I have given out to other people, both for payments and donations; After transferring the funds to a new address, someone has donated to the previous address. How can I ...
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5 votes
1 answer
1k views

If I increment the first tryte of Seed A to obtain Seed B, why does Seed B retain some of the spent addresses of Seed A in it's history?

According to this video when you take a Seed A (e.g. HIJK99) and increment the first tryte by one to obtain another Seed B (i.e. IIJK99), Seed B is associated to the transactions to Seed A.
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8 votes
2 answers
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What is JINN project?

I would like to know more about the JINN project. What is JINN? Why is it important to Iota? Where can I get more information about JINN?
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  • 435
13 votes
3 answers
1k views

What information is leaked if I reuse an address?

Everyone knows that spending from an address multiple times is bad, because Winternitz OTS. But, what does that mean, exactly? What information is leaked in each signature, and how would an attacker ...
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25 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is it possible to send pictures to the Tangle? What is the data limit per transaction?

As we all know, it is easily possible to convert ASCII to trytes. See this converter in the IOTA github: Converter If I now want to convert a whole picture like one of the Iota logo to trytes, how is ...
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22 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is an IOTA "bundle"?

The IOTASear.ch tangle explorer allows searching for addresses, transactions and bundles. While the meaning of addresses and transactions seem clear to me, I am not aware of the purpose of bundles. ...
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  • 543
14 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is the IOTA transaction data structure?

I'm vaguely familiar with Bitcoin's UTXO-based transaction structure and Ethereum's account-based/gas-including transaction structure. What does an IOTA transaction contain?
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55 votes
2 answers
5k views

Why does IOTA use a ternary number system?

What are the benefits of the ternary number system over the more traditional binary number system? Are there drawbacks to ternary with respect to binary, aside from the obvious of less adoption?
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