Questions tagged [bundles]

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22 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is an IOTA "bundle"?

The IOTASear.ch tangle explorer allows searching for addresses, transactions and bundles. While the meaning of addresses and transactions seem clear to me, I am not aware of the purpose of bundles. ...
q9f's user avatar
  • 543
10 votes
1 answer
986 views

Why is the normalized hash considered insecure when containing the char 'M'

Looking at the code of the iota.lib.js' bundle creation mechanism, a normalized hash is computed and then checked for inclusion of 13 /* = M */. If one is found, the obsoleteTag is incremented, and ...
Akkumulator's user avatar
  • 1,468
6 votes
4 answers
225 views

Do transactions within the same bundle need to reference specific branch and trunk hashes?

When adding a new transaction, I get two "random" other transactions to use as my branch and trunk. But if I have several transactions in a bundle, does each one get their own random two? Or should ...
Andrew Arrow's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
134 views

Are bundles one tip or four?

As a bundle is made of 4 or more transactions, and a bundle is accepted as a whole or not at all, is a bundle treated as a single tip by subsequent transactions, or is it treated as 4 tips, that are ...
Slicc's user avatar
  • 213
8 votes
2 answers
222 views

How is ensured that a message sent in a transaction is immutable?

Zero value transactions can send a message instead of a signature, using the transactions signatureMessageFragment. However, as far as I understand the mechanism, only value, currentIndex, lastIndex, ...
Akkumulator's user avatar
  • 1,468
8 votes
1 answer
376 views

What is an input transaction, and what does its "address" field represent?

In the IOTA guide's The Anatomy of a Transaction the address field of the transaction is described as: address: String 81-trytes address. In case this is an output, then this is the address of the ...
hsbsid's user avatar
  • 235
7 votes
2 answers
247 views

Why do transactions in a bundle need to be chained via trunkTransaction?

I'm trying to understand the inner workings of a bundle and its consequences. From what I’ve read so far, transactions of a bundle are chained by the trunkTransaction of each transaction in the ...
ralf's user avatar
  • 1,063
6 votes
1 answer
101 views

Which parts of a bundle have to be signed?

I understand that a bundle consists of input and output txs like in this example. Does a signature always need two txs and why? Because it's too big? Which parts of a "value transacting bundle" are ...
Zauz's user avatar
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