Is it correct that IOTA uses balanced ternary system, and not unbalanced? And in that case, why are they working with negative numbers? (Ref: YouTube)

The Lamport signature requires a large number of integers to create a key-pair, how is the seed split up?

References to lines in Github where the seed is used to generate key-pairs and addresses would be appreciated, and I can make a short write-up when I figure it out.

  • Those seem to be two questions.
    – Helmar
    Dec 17, 2017 at 14:41

1 Answer 1


IOTA uses balanced ternary system. Reason is that they want the system to be efficiently implemented in hardware (on their own trinary processor), and balanced ternary is easier in hardware (positive current, no current, negative current).

I wrote something in another answer about how the address (and the private key) are derived from the seed.

The relevant implementation on GitHub are here (iota.lib.js) and here (iota.lib.java).

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