In this tangle visualizer it can be frequently seen that there are transactions with dozens of direct confirmations while others seem to be never confirmed. Is this due to a node not playing by the rules (either an attacker or a selfish node) or is this intended?

According to -- at least my understanding of -- the whitepaper it is essential that nodes try to confirm tips. Otherwise the number of tips will grow to infinity.

1 Answer 1


Sometimes, there are attacks going on. These attacks are invalid transactions. Because of their invalid nature they are not confirmed by others. To maintain the Attack, the attacker needs to prefer the confirmation of his/her own transactions. So this is the reason why you see these unhealthy distribution within the tangle.

  • What do you mean with "invalid" and "invalid nature"?
    – lex82
    Dec 5, 2017 at 6:09
  • They are double spends or the signature is not correct, because of the attacker not posessing the private key of the address
    – Tobi MZ
    Dec 5, 2017 at 6:10
  • Ok, thanks. However, the main question was actually, why some transactions are confirmed over and over again. So this is also due to an attack?
    – lex82
    Dec 5, 2017 at 6:12
  • yes. I just wanted to keep it more general.
    – Tobi MZ
    Dec 5, 2017 at 6:15
  • It would be better to clearly address the problem of the question. While general knowledge is always good the goal of a Q&A site is to answer specific questions.
    – Helmar
    Dec 7, 2017 at 22:21

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