Timestamps in Tangle are already mandatory and must have a value in a certain range, which seems to be between the last snapshot time (epoch 1517180400, which is GMT: Sunday, January 28, 2018 11:00:00 PM) and 2 hours in the future relative to the node's clock. Is this node's clock a physical clock or logical clock? If physical clock, does tangle really needs to use physical clocks for their timestamping mechanism? The fact that timestamping by nodes can be lied or mistaken by wrong physical clock, will logical clock helps?

2 Answers 2


Timestamps in transactions are from physical clock. The protocol don't relies on it except for rejecting transactions issued by an node that is largely not sync (i.e. wrong physical clock)

  • Is it mandatory that Tangle must use physical clock?
    – Casey Yeow
    Commented Nov 3, 2018 at 18:05
  • As long as timestamp is within required bounds, it's source doesn't matter
    – ben75
    Commented Nov 4, 2018 at 10:56
  • If we employ logical clock for timestamping, the actual timestamp value still can be fooled by malicious node since nodes are deployed at user premises?
    – Casey Yeow
    Commented Nov 14, 2018 at 22:58

Timestamps are necessary. That is correct. They are included in the bundle hash. But it is not mandatory to have a correct timestamp. So, you can also set it to zero.

  • Is this node's clock used for timestamping a physical clock or logical clock?
    – Casey Yeow
    Commented Nov 2, 2018 at 10:31

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