I think that IOTA Transactions, Confirmation and Consensus is a very good reading. It helped me a lot on understanding IOTA protocol working.

Nevertheless I have a doubt: regarding the Double Spend slide how would transaction 5 see the conflict between two inner double-spending transactions referencing two tips that reference them? Checking and comparing balances of all addresses?

1 Answer 1


It traverses through ancestors until it reaches a recent memory-persisted snapshot of balances, creates a new potential state, and then checks to see whether any addresses resolve to a negative value.

  • Could you please update the hyperlinks since they are not there anymore? Thank you.
    – StephenFan
    Feb 7, 2019 at 0:51

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